The bases of the modern medicine lie without doubt in the Unani medicine how is proved by the historical development of the medicine and among other things to the detailed descriptions of anatomy and illnesses in the „canon of the medicine“ from Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Thus described, for example, Ibn Nafis for the first time the small lung circulation and the coronary circulation and Ibn Sina the classification of the jaundice provided. In the „canon of the medicine“ one discovers chapter about anatomy, physiology, pathology, face and body diagnostics, pharmacology, cardiology, gastroenterologye, Nephrologie, Hepatologie, oncology, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, neurology, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie, dental medicine, ophthalmology, dermatology, toxicology, traumatology, urology, environmental medicine, occupational medicine, sports medicine, preventive medicine, aesthetics and travelmedicine.
The base draught to the healthy preservation of the person in the Unani medicine consists in following the influence on the body, in strengthening this when required or in counteracting against them and in holding the body therefore in a balance. It are distinguished “essential” from „not essential“ influence. Six essential influence looks indispensable and is called “Asbab Assitta Al-Daruriah”.These are:
Environment / air
Food and drinking
physical movement and rest
Sleeping and guards
Removal and restraint
Emotions and rest
These factors must be compensated, with an imbalance, for example, excessive food, sleeping or restraint, threaten illnesses. To explain the single points and the „not essential factors of influence“ would sprinkle the frame of this side.
Every person is seen comprehensive in the Unani medicine and individual. Besides, are two parametres which workin the body and in the environment of extreme importance: the temperature and the degree of humidity.
Thus warm and cold bodies, as well as warm and cold illnesses are distinguished. Besides, the body temperature can still be in the normarea, however, the person or in the case of illness the patient feels that for him is cold or warm. People with warm temperaments (sanguine and choleric person) endure as a rule the cold better than the people with cold temperaments (phlegmatic and melancholic) et vice versa. Also with the illnesses the seasonal differences which are to be distinguished accordingto the prevailing temperature and humidity step are to be recognised. Thus cold-humid illnesses (for example, diarrhoe, colds and attacks of asthma …) are found increasingly at the cold-humid season. The therapy occurs allopathically, so in this case with warm-dry uses and medicaments to move these qualities in the balance. The qualities (warmly, coldly, humid and drily) are the base of the element apprenticeship four which was already described 2500 years ago with Empedokles and was developed since. The temperaments form the interaction of these qualities with each other. The elements fire, water, earth and air reflect the ruling activities on the earth again and form smallest physical (not chemical) unity. The interactions of the elements in the macrocosm reflect the processes in the microcosm again. Their accompanying temperaments are
Fire – warmly and drily
Air – warmly and humid
Water – coldly and humid
Earth – coldly and drily
Also to the body liquids (also body juice scalled) are ascribed certain qualities. Thus is the mucus (arab. Balgham, Greek ones. phlegm) coldly and humid, the blood (arab. Dam, Greek ones.Sanguis) warmly and humid, the yellow bile (arab. Safra, Greek ones. Cholera) warmly and drily and the black bile (arab. Sauda, Greek ones. Melancholera) coldly and drily. The body liquids can be changed in her quality and/or in her quantity what can cause an illness. Here the affected body liquid can become either in her quality corrects or with profusion diverted to restore health.
Summarised the person is to be seen as a part of the universe which is put out to influence by the environment, constantly must adapt itself and provide for his own welfare. Among the rest, the therapy of a patient hangs from his individual temperament, the prevailing body liquid, the season, the age and the surroundings from. All these factors were analysed for centuries, examined empirically and documented and today are available to us to the other research and complement.